POD Technology

Impel Neuropharma’s Precision Olfactory Delivery or POD™ nasal drug delivery platform is designed to deliver drugs in a consistent and predictable manner for improved biodistribution that yields improved clinical outcomes.

By delivering therapeutics to the upper nasal cavity, the POD™ nasal delivery platform takes advantage of the rich vasculature found in the olfactory region and holds the potential to directly target the brain via the olfactory and trigeminal nerves. Delivery of therapeutically meaningful levels of drugs may allow for the development of more effective formulations of existing drugs, as well as development of novel drugs that otherwise would not cross the blood-brain barrier, thereby expanding the range of treatment options available to patients.

The nasal cavity is a vastly underutilized entry point for therapeutics in the systemic circulation. The primary challenge in achieving significant nasal drug delivery is depositing drugs in the upper nasal cavity where systemic absorption may be more consistent and predictable. Due to the complex architecture of this area, drugs delivered with standard nasal devices such as droppers, sprays or pumps typically deposit less than 5% of the compound into the upper nasal cavity and thus do not consistently or effectively get enough drug into the body. In contrast, POD™ technology results in a large fraction of drug deposition in this region, which can lead to better drug delivery to the brain.

How it


Our POD™ technology is a patient preferred approach to deliver drugs intranasally. Patients or caregivers can administer medications via the POD because it does not require coordination of breathing and activation. The POD technology is a passive experience for patients. Merely place the nasal tip into the nostril and then activate the POD for an easy and consistent administration of medicine. The POD technology is preferred two to one over traditional nasal pumps.

Published Articles and Poster Presentations

To learn more about our innovative technology, we recommend reading the following:


Shrewsbury, S. B., Jeleva, M., Satterly, K. H., Lickliter, J. and Hoekman, J. (2019), STOP 101: A Phase 1, Randomized, Open‐Label, Comparative Bioavailability Study of INP104, Dihydroergotamine Mesylate (DHE) Administered Intranasally by a I123 Precision Olfactory Delivery (POD®) Device, in Healthy Adult Subjects. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain. doi:10.1111/head.13476

Shrewsbury, SB, Swardstrom, M., Satterly, KH, Campbell, J., Tugiono, N., Gillies, JD, & Hoekman, J. (2019). Placebo/Active Controlled, Safety, Pharmaco-Kinetic/Dynamic Study of INP105 (POD® olanzapine) in Healthy Adults. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine: Integrating Emergency Care with Population Health, 20(2). Abstract retrieved from https://escholarship.org/uc/item/86f519rb | Poster PDF

Satterly, K. H, Gajera, B., Davies, G. J, Lin, H., Muppaneni, S., Wright, J., et al. (2019). Development of a Precision Olfactory Delivery (POD®)-Olanzapine Drug-Device Product for Agitation. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine: Integrating Emergency Care with Population Health, 20(2). Abstract retrieved from https://escholarship.org/uc/item/0gm7913k | Poster PDF

Shrewsbury, S.B., Jeleva, M., Satterly, K.H., Lickliter, J., and Hoekman, J. (2018), Safety, Tolerability and Comparative Bioavailability of a Novel Intranasal DHE Product (INP104). Presented at AHS 2018. Poster PDF

Hoekman, J., Brunelle, A., Hite, M., Kim, P., Fuller, C. (2013), Impel NeuroPharma, Inc. Usability and Tolerability Study in Human Subjects with a Novel Precision Olfactory Delivery (POD) Device. Presented at AAPS 2013. Poster PDF

Hoekman, J., Brunelle, A., Hite, M., Kim, P., Fuller, C. (2013), Impel NeuroPharma, Inc. SPECT Imaging of Direct Nose-to-Brain Transfer of MAG-3 in Man. Presented at AAPS 2013. Poster PDF

Landis MS, Boyden T, Pegg S. Nasal-to-CNS drug delivery: where are we now and where are we heading? An industrial perspective. Ther Deliv. Feb 2012;3(2):195-208. Review. PubMed: 22834197

Lochhead, J.J., Thorne, R.G. (2011), Intranasal Delivery of Biologics to the Central Nervous System. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2011 Nov 15. PubMed: 22119441


Impel NeuroPharma, Inc. is active in the areas of biomedical research and drug delivery systems.

This page is intended to serve as notice under 35 U.S.C. § 287(a).


U.S. Pat. No. 9,550,036 and 9,919,117. Other patents pending.