POD Technology

We have developed our proprietary POD technology to target the vascular rich upper nasal cavity with multiple clinical trials demonstrating rapid absorption and consistent drug biodistribution with ease of use for a patient, provider or caregiver. We believe these characteristics will lead to injection-like clinical outcomes achieved non-invasively. We believe that we are the first company to successfully harness the benefits of delivery to the upper nasal cavity to improve the therapeutic potential of CNS therapies. Traditional nasal pumps have suffered from high variability and low overall absorption. These characteristics have generally limited the nasal route of administration for use with local nasal drugs for allergies or nasal inflammation. We have pioneered research into systemic drug delivery via the upper nasal cavity to the CNS, the anatomy of which are depicted in the picture below. The upper nasal cavity is more permeable, has a higher density of vasculature and has a reduced clearance rate compared to the lower nasal cavity. These advantages of the upper nasal cavity can allow for a better consistency in dosing and uptake as well as the potential for faster time to onset of action.

Upper Nasal Cavity
POD Device Anatomy Diagram

Our POD™ technology is a patient preferred approach to deliver drugs nasally. Patients or caregivers can administer medications via the POD because it does not require coordination of breathing and activation. The POD technology utilizes propellant to expel the drug substance into the upper nasal cavity to achieve consistent delivery of drug with every dose. Merely place the nasal tip into the nostril and then activate the POD for an easy and consistent administration of medicine. In a clinical trial survey, administration via the POD technology was preferred three to one over traditional nasal pumps.

Published Articles and Poster Presentations

To learn more about our innovative technology, we recommend reading the following:


Shrewsbury, S. B., Jeleva, M., Satterly, K. H., Lickliter, J. and Hoekman, J. (2019), STOP 101: A Phase 1, Randomized, Open‐Label, Comparative Bioavailability Study of INP104, Dihydroergotamine Mesylate (DHE) Administered Intranasally by a I123 Precision Olfactory Delivery (POD®) Device, in Healthy Adult Subjects. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain. doi:10.1111/head.13476

Shrewsbury S, Swardstrom M, Satterly K, Campbell J, Gillies J, Hoekman J, Tugiono N, Hocevar-Trnka J. SNAP 101: Randomized, Crossover, Active/Placebo-Controlled, Safety and Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Study of 3 Ascending Doses of POD® Olanzapine. Poster presented at the American Psychiatric Association 2019 Annual Meeting in San Francisco. | Poster PDF

Craig K,  Hoekman J,  Jeleva M,  Satterly K,  Lickliter J,  Shrewsbury S.  Cardiovascular Profile of Dihydroergotamine Mesylate (DHE) Delivered by the POD® Device Compared to D.H.E. 45® for Injection from the INP104-101 Clinical Trial. Poster presented at American Academy of Neurology 2019 Annual Meeting in Philadelphia, USA. Abstract retrieved from indexsmart.mirasmart.com/AAN2019/PDFfiles/AAN2019-003485.pdf | Poster PDF

Satterly K,  Davies G,  Gajera B,  Wright J,  Lin H, Muppaneni S,  To K,  Dashevsky I,  Shrewsbury S,  Hoekman J. Preclinical Development of a Novel Precision Olfactory Delivery (POD®) – L-dopa Drug-Device Combination Product for the Treatment of OFF Episodes in Parkinson’s Disease. Poster presented at American Academy of Neurology 2019 Annual Meeting in Philadelphia, USA. Abstract retrieved from indexsmart.mirasmart.com/AAN2019/PDFfiles/AAN2019-001894.pdf | Poster PDF

Satterly, K. H, Gajera, B., Davies, G. J, Lin, H., Muppaneni, S., Wright, J., et al. (2019). Development of a Precision Olfactory Delivery (POD®)-Olanzapine Drug-Device Product for Agitation. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine: Integrating Emergency Care with Population Health, 20(2). Abstract retrieved from https://escholarship.org/uc/item/0gm7913k | Poster PDF

Hoekman, J., Brunelle, A., Hite, M., Kim, P., Fuller, C. (2013), Impel NeuroPharma, Inc. Usability and Tolerability Study in Human Subjects with a Novel Precision Olfactory Delivery (POD) Device. Presented at AAPS 2013. Poster PDF

Hoekman, J., Brunelle, A., Hite, M., Kim, P., Fuller, C. (2013), Impel NeuroPharma, Inc. SPECT Imaging of Direct Nose-to-Brain Transfer of MAG-3 in Man. Presented at AAPS 2013. Poster PDF

Landis MS, Boyden T, Pegg S. Nasal-to-CNS drug delivery: where are we now and where are we heading? An industrial perspective. Ther Deliv. Feb 2012;3(2):195-208. Review. PubMed: 22834197

Lochhead, J.J., Thorne, R.G. (2011), Intranasal Delivery of Biologics to the Central Nervous System. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2011 Nov 15. PubMed: 22119441


For more information, visit our Publications page.


Impel NeuroPharma, Inc. is active in the areas of biomedical research and drug delivery systems.

This page is intended to serve as notice under 35 U.S.C. § 287(a).


U.S. Pat. No. 9,550,036 and 9,919,117. Other patents pending.