Agitation is a common symptom of neurological and psychiatric disorders characterized by feelings of unease, excessive talking and/or unintentional and purposeless motions, such as wringing of the hands or pacing.

People experiencing agitation may also express excitement, hostility, poor impulse control, tension, uncooperativeness and sometimes disruptive behavior, which could lead to aggression and violence. Acute agitation occurs in patients whose therapy for underlying disorders may have been missed or stopped and may also be triggered by stressful situations or traumatic events. The onset of agitation may occur suddenly or slowly and vary in length of duration, lasting for a few minutes, a few hours or much longer.1

Agitation is a frequent symptom that is difficult to manage for approximately 90% of the 8.5 million schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients in the United States who, on average, experience 12 agitation events per year.2 Despite the complexity of navigating care for acute agitation events, empowering patients to participate in their treatment decisions should be paramount as approximately two-thirds of patients recognize when they are becoming agitated and are also able to categorize and identify their triggers.3

Agitation is also a frequent symptom with children, adolescent and adults managing Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Of the approximate 1.2 million children with ASD in the United States, nearly 70% exhibit agitation with over 250,000 emergency room visits resulting from escalating agitation events. Antipsychotics have demonstrated success in safely and effectively de-escalating agitation events, but often require either an injection or slow onset oral medications. The majority of caregivers can recognize agitation events which could be prevented with rapid acting, non-invasive treatments.4

The severity of agitation is on a spectrum of mild to severe with a significant percentage of patients experiencing mild, moderate and intense agitation requiring intervention and treatment. A significant percentage of these agitation events lead to either admission to an inpatient treatment facility or admission to the emergency room where half of these patients will subsequently be admitted to an inpatient treatment facility.5


Feelings of unease

Excessive talking

Unintentional and purposeless motions

Poor impulse control


Disruptive behavior which can lead to aggression
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Impel NeuroPharma is currently developing INP105 with the goal to be a preferred choice for the safe and rapid treatment of acute agitation and, because it is designed to be non-invasive, it has the potential to expand the treatment setting beyond the emergency room, such as inpatient treatment or community care facilities and the patient’s home.


1 Roberts, J., Gracia Canales, A., Blanthorn-Hazell, S. et al. BMC Psychiatry 18, 104 (2018)
2 Impel Data on File.
3 Faden J. et al. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. 2019:15 2273–2283
4 Impel Data on File
5 Impel Data on File